View unanswered posts | View active topics It is currently October 25th, 2014, 10:36 am



Reply to topic  [ 14 posts ] 
 Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble' 
Author Message
Modmin Dude
User avatar

Joined: December 31st, 2004, 9:55 am
Posts: 12141
Post Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble'
NASA wrote:
2013-209
June 27, 2013
NASA'S VOYAGER 1 EXPLORES FINAL FRONTIER OF OUR 'SOLAR BUBBLE'
PASADENA, Calif. -- Data from Voyager 1, now more than 11 billion miles (18 billion kilometers) from the sun, suggest the spacecraft is closer to becoming the first human-made object to reach interstellar space.

Research using Voyager 1 data and published in the journal Science today provides new detail on the last region the spacecraft will cross before it leaves the heliosphere, or the bubble around our sun, and enters interstellar space. Three papers describe how Voyager 1's entry into a region called the magnetic highway resulted in simultaneous observations of the highest rate so far of charged particles from outside heliosphere and the disappearance of charged particles from inside the heliosphere.

Scientists have seen two of the three signs of interstellar arrival they expected to see: charged particles disappearing as they zoom out along the solar magnetic field, and cosmic rays from far outside zooming in. Scientists have not yet seen the third sign, an abrupt change in the direction of the magnetic field, which would indicate the presence of the interstellar magnetic field.

"This strange, last region before interstellar space is coming into focus, thanks to Voyager 1, humankind's most distant scout," said Ed Stone, Voyager project scientist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. "If you looked at the cosmic ray and energetic particle data in isolation, you might think Voyager had reached interstellar space, but the team feels Voyager 1 has not yet gotten there because we are still within the domain of the sun's magnetic field."

Scientists do not know exactly how far Voyager 1 has to go to reach interstellar space. They estimate it could take several more months, or even years, to get there. The heliosphere extends at least 8 billion miles (13 billion kilometers) beyond all the planets in our solar system. It is dominated by the sun's magnetic field and an ionized wind expanding outward from the sun. Outside the heliosphere, interstellar space is filled with matter from other stars and the magnetic field present in the nearby region of the Milky Way.

Voyager 1 and its twin spacecraft, Voyager 2, were launched in 1977. They toured Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune before embarking on their interstellar mission in 1990. They now aim to leave the heliosphere. Measuring the size of the heliosphere is part of the Voyagers' mission.

The Science papers focus on observations made from May to September 2012 by Voyager 1's cosmic ray, low-energy charged particle and magnetometer instruments, with some additional charged particle data obtained through April of this year.

Voyager 2 is about 9 billion miles (15 billion kilometers) from the sun and still inside the heliosphere. Voyager 1 was about 11 billion miles (18 billion kilometers) from the sun Aug. 25 when it reached the magnetic highway, also known as the depletion region, and a connection to interstellar space. This region allows charged particles to travel into and out of the heliosphere along a smooth magnetic field line, instead of bouncing around in all directions as if trapped on local roads. For the first time in this region, scientists could detect low-energy cosmic rays that originate from dying stars.

"We saw a dramatic and rapid disappearance of the solar-originating particles. They decreased in intensity by more than 1,000 times, as if there was a huge vacuum pump at the entrance ramp onto the magnetic highway," said Stamatios Krimigis, the low-energy charged particle instrument's principal investigator at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Md. "We have never witnessed such a decrease before, except when Voyager 1 exited the giant magnetosphere of Jupiter, some 34 years ago."

Other charged particle behavior observed by Voyager 1 also indicates the spacecraft still is in a region of transition to the interstellar medium. While crossing into the new region, the charged particles originating from the heliosphere that decreased most quickly were those shooting straightest along solar magnetic field lines. Particles moving perpendicular to the magnetic field did not decrease as quickly. However, cosmic rays moving along the field lines in the magnetic highway region were somewhat more populous than those moving perpendicular to the field. In interstellar space, the direction of the moving charged particles is not expected to matter.

In the span of about 24 hours, the magnetic field originating from the sun also began piling up, like cars backed up on a freeway exit ramp. But scientists were able to quantify that the magnetic field barely changed direction -- by no more than 2 degrees.

"A day made such a difference in this region with the magnetic field suddenly doubling and becoming extraordinarily smooth," said Leonard Burlaga, the lead author of one of the papers, and based at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "But since there was no significant change in the magnetic field direction, we're still observing the field lines originating at the sun."

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in Pasadena, Calif., built and operates the Voyager spacecraft. California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA. The Voyager missions are a part of NASA's Heliophysics System Observatory, sponsored by the Heliophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

For more information about the Voyager spacecraft mission, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/voyager and http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov.

http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/news/voyage ... ntier.html
:alien2:

_________________
Quote:
Clowns to the left of me, Jokers to the right....


June 28th, 2013, 2:14 pm
Profile
Modmin Dude
User avatar

Joined: December 31st, 2004, 9:55 am
Posts: 12141
Post Re: Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble'
Not sure about anyone else, but this type of stuff fascinates me. To think that a 36 year old spacecraft, made with what is now considered ancient technology, is still cruising along on its way to interstellar space. Just awesome!

Good on ya, human race!

_________________
Quote:
Clowns to the left of me, Jokers to the right....


June 28th, 2013, 2:16 pm
Profile
NFL Veteran

Joined: November 28th, 2007, 12:50 pm
Posts: 1387
Location: Newport Beach, Ca
Post Re: Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble'
The part that always gets me is how NASA is able to communicate with a craft like this or the Mars Rover. The delay in issuing commands must be huge. The Mars Rover has something like a 20min delay and that's with very recent technology and only as far as Mars.


June 28th, 2013, 2:29 pm
Profile
Modmin Dude
User avatar

Joined: December 31st, 2004, 9:55 am
Posts: 12141
Post Re: Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble'
rao wrote:
The part that always gets me is how NASA is able to communicate with a craft like this or the Mars Rover. The delay in issuing commands must be huge. The Mars Rover has something like a 20min delay and that's with very recent technology and only as far as Mars.
Granted I'm no scientist, but I think the delay is due to the distance and the fact that we haven't discovered how to transmit / travel faster than the speed of light....yet. Once that happens, I would imagine these delays to minimize, if not disappear completely.

_________________
Quote:
Clowns to the left of me, Jokers to the right....


July 8th, 2013, 12:49 pm
Profile
NFL Veteran

Joined: November 28th, 2007, 12:50 pm
Posts: 1387
Location: Newport Beach, Ca
Post Re: Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble'
TheRealWags wrote:
rao wrote:
The part that always gets me is how NASA is able to communicate with a craft like this or the Mars Rover. The delay in issuing commands must be huge. The Mars Rover has something like a 20min delay and that's with very recent technology and only as far as Mars.
Granted I'm no scientist, but I think the delay is due to the distance and the fact that we haven't discovered how to transmit / travel faster than the speed of light....yet. Once that happens, I would imagine these delays to minimize, if not disappear completely.


Haha, it's not the why the delay happens that I find fascinating, its the operators abilities to give commands with huge delays and still get work done. Obviously they can't ask the thing to make any kind of fine movements, but even the clumsiest of moves would feel like playing an online game with 20 min lag between actions. The patience of the operators along with the programming of the rover allow them to do such awesome research an incomprehensible distance away. Its incredible.


July 8th, 2013, 1:49 pm
Profile
Modmin Dude
User avatar

Joined: December 31st, 2004, 9:55 am
Posts: 12141
Post Re: Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble'
rao wrote:
TheRealWags wrote:
rao wrote:
The part that always gets me is how NASA is able to communicate with a craft like this or the Mars Rover. The delay in issuing commands must be huge. The Mars Rover has something like a 20min delay and that's with very recent technology and only as far as Mars.
Granted I'm no scientist, but I think the delay is due to the distance and the fact that we haven't discovered how to transmit / travel faster than the speed of light....yet. Once that happens, I would imagine these delays to minimize, if not disappear completely.


Haha, it's not the why the delay happens that I find fascinating, its the operators abilities to give commands with huge delays and still get work done. Obviously they can't ask the thing to make any kind of fine movements, but even the clumsiest of moves would feel like playing an online game with 20 min lag between actions. The patience of the operators along with the programming of the rover allow them to do such awesome research an incomprehensible distance away. Its incredible.
Oops :oops: my misunderstanding ](*,)
Yeah, I agree the wait / delay to see if the commands that were sent must be excruciating at times.

Kinda reminds me of the Big Trak programmable robot truck I had as a child (). I'd sit there for hours trying to get the damn thing to go across the room or into another room and could never seem to get it just right. :nerd: Then again, these guys are PhDs....they prolly know what they're doing :wink:

_________________
Quote:
Clowns to the left of me, Jokers to the right....


July 8th, 2013, 2:22 pm
Profile
QB Coach
User avatar

Joined: October 26th, 2005, 11:48 pm
Posts: 3039
Location: Elkhart, In.
Post Re: Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble'
One would think with the BILLIONS of dollars that NASA spends on Space Exploration and more, that they developed a SUPER ULTRA top secret communications platform. I wouldn't doubt if it had to do with microwave or burst transmissions, bounced through a satellite and the reverse is true. But I also have to wonder if the void of space doesn't provide for a pristine communications environment, because you don't have all the chatter of man kind clogging radio frequencies like you do here on Earth.

But then again, I'm not a scientist... :roll:

_________________
2 Chronicles 10:14, "if my people, who are called by my name, will humble themselves and pray and seek my face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and I will forgive their sin and will heal their land."


July 19th, 2013, 2:23 pm
Profile
NFL Veteran

Joined: November 28th, 2007, 12:50 pm
Posts: 1387
Location: Newport Beach, Ca
Post Re: Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble'
WarEr4Christ wrote:
One would think with the BILLIONS of dollars that NASA spends on Space Exploration and more, that they developed a SUPER ULTRA top secret communications platform. I wouldn't doubt if it had to do with microwave or burst transmissions, bounced through a satellite and the reverse is true. But I also have to wonder if the void of space doesn't provide for a pristine communications environment, because you don't have all the chatter of man kind clogging radio frequencies like you do here on Earth.

But then again, I'm not a scientist... :roll:


They use the Deep Space Network to communicate with the Mars rover. It is managed by Caltech in Pasadena and has been around for years to mainly track unmanned spacecraft. Nothing top secrect about it.

The predecessor of the DSN was actually given to NASA by the army back in the late 50s.


July 21st, 2013, 12:31 pm
Profile
QB Coach
User avatar

Joined: August 21st, 2005, 3:36 am
Posts: 3142
Location: Philadelphia, PA
Post Re: Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble'
rao wrote:
WarEr4Christ wrote:
One would think with the BILLIONS of dollars that NASA spends on Space Exploration and more, that they developed a SUPER ULTRA top secret communications platform. I wouldn't doubt if it had to do with microwave or burst transmissions, bounced through a satellite and the reverse is true. But I also have to wonder if the void of space doesn't provide for a pristine communications environment, because you don't have all the chatter of man kind clogging radio frequencies like you do here on Earth.

But then again, I'm not a scientist... :roll:


They use the Deep Space Network to communicate with the Mars rover. It is managed by Caltech in Pasadena and has been around for years to mainly track unmanned spacecraft. Nothing top secrect about it.

The predecessor of the DSN was actually given to NASA by the army back in the late 50s.

Also, as was noted by wags, as of now nothing can move faster than the speed of light. So that's the upper bound of speed for anything (including communications). I'm not 100% certain of this, but I believe that in order for anything to surpass the speed of light, it will have to inviolate Einstein's theory of relativity. Thus far, nothing has ever done it, and from what I understand, nothing is even pending that looks like it could. The Large Hadron Collider scientists thought they had exceeded it in one experiment, but it turns out it was a math error.

So, until something faster than the speed of light comes along/is discovered, there will be delays covering huge distances. To put that into perspective, here's a few stats:

Mars is (on average) about 140 million miles away from Earth. The speed of light is 186,000 miles/second. That means any communications from the Earth to Mars would have a minimum delay of 12.5 minutes (140million/186,000 = 752 secs, which is 12.5 minutes).

Scale that up to the Voyagers: Voyager I (per the article) is 9 billion miles from the sun, which makes it around 8 billion, nine hundred seven million miles from earth. Calculating that distance, the communications delay (assuming transmissions are at the speed of light, which is probably not happening since there will always be some kind of interference/resistance) would be: 47,887 seconds = 798.12 minutes = 13 hours. Think about that! For every command issued, there is a 13 hour delay. That's nuts.

So there you go. My extremely amateur calculations & explanation of why there is a delay. I could be way wrong about this stuff, but that's my understanding of it. If anyone else knows better, please feel free to point out where I'm wrong.

_________________
"Facts are stubborn things; and whatever may be our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passions, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence." - John Adams

β€œThe good thing about science is that it's true whether or not you believe in it.” - Neil deGrasse Tyson


July 21st, 2013, 11:58 pm
Profile
NFL Veteran

Joined: November 28th, 2007, 12:50 pm
Posts: 1387
Location: Newport Beach, Ca
Post Re: Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble'
Touchdown Jesus wrote:
rao wrote:
WarEr4Christ wrote:
One would think with the BILLIONS of dollars that NASA spends on Space Exploration and more, that they developed a SUPER ULTRA top secret communications platform. I wouldn't doubt if it had to do with microwave or burst transmissions, bounced through a satellite and the reverse is true. But I also have to wonder if the void of space doesn't provide for a pristine communications environment, because you don't have all the chatter of man kind clogging radio frequencies like you do here on Earth.

But then again, I'm not a scientist... :roll:


They use the Deep Space Network to communicate with the Mars rover. It is managed by Caltech in Pasadena and has been around for years to mainly track unmanned spacecraft. Nothing top secrect about it.

The predecessor of the DSN was actually given to NASA by the army back in the late 50s.

Also, as was noted by wags, as of now nothing can move faster than the speed of light. So that's the upper bound of speed for anything (including communications). I'm not 100% certain of this, but I believe that in order for anything to surpass the speed of light, it will have to inviolate Einstein's theory of relativity. Thus far, nothing has ever done it, and from what I understand, nothing is even pending that looks like it could. The Large Hadron Collider scientists thought they had exceeded it in one experiment, but it turns out it was a math error.

So, until something faster than the speed of light comes along/is discovered, there will be delays covering huge distances. To put that into perspective, here's a few stats:

Mars is (on average) about 140 million miles away from Earth. The speed of light is 186,000 miles/second. That means any communications from the Earth to Mars would have a minimum delay of 12.5 minutes (140million/186,000 = 752 secs, which is 12.5 minutes).

Scale that up to the Voyagers: Voyager I (per the article) is 9 billion miles from the sun, which makes it around 8 billion, nine hundred seven million miles from earth. Calculating that distance, the communications delay (assuming transmissions are at the speed of light, which is probably not happening since there will always be some kind of interference/resistance) would be: 47,887 seconds = 798.12 minutes = 13 hours. Think about that! For every command issued, there is a 13 hour delay. That's nuts.

So there you go. My extremely amateur calculations & explanation of why there is a delay. I could be way wrong about this stuff, but that's my understanding of it. If anyone else knows better, please feel free to point out where I'm wrong.


To make matters worse, I'm pretty sure they use a type of radio wave and I don't think it gets to light speed. Like I mentioned before, the patience of the operators and researchers using this tech is amazing.

I really wish the US would focus more on space exploration and even start something like NASA for exploring the ocean. It would be great to have a goal for the nation again like this country had when trying to go to the moon.


July 22nd, 2013, 12:46 pm
Profile
Modmin Dude
User avatar

Joined: December 31st, 2004, 9:55 am
Posts: 12141
Post Re: Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble'
rao wrote:
I really wish the US would focus more on space exploration and even start something like NASA for exploring the ocean. It would be great to have a goal for the nation again like this country had when trying to go to the moon.
Agreed.

_________________
Quote:
Clowns to the left of me, Jokers to the right....


July 22nd, 2013, 12:55 pm
Profile
Modmin Dude
User avatar

Joined: December 31st, 2004, 9:55 am
Posts: 12141
Post Re: Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble'
Space.com wrote:
Pale Blue Dot 2: Voyager 1 Signal from Interstellar Space Seen from Earth (Photo)
by Megan Gannon, News Editor | September 14, 2013 10:30am ET

Image
The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a network of radio telescopes operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, spotted the signal of NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft from 11.5 billion miles (18.5 billion kilometers) away. The image was taken on Feb. 21, 2013.


NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft nearly 12 billion miles from Earth is still phoning home from interstellar space, and a new NASA photo captures that radio signal as pale blue speck in a cosmic ocean.

The space agency unveiled the amazing image Voyager 1's radio signal glow as seen by an array of radio telescopes on Earth earliier this week to celebrate Voyager 1's arrival in its new interstellar frontier.

Researchers confirmed Thursday (Sept. 12) that Voyager 1 is officially in interstellar space. The spacecraft, which launched in 1977, became the first ever human-made object to leave our cosmic neighborhood and enter the space between stars. It likely did so on or around Aug. 25, 2012. [Voyager 1 in Interstellar Space: Complete Coverage]

Scientists can't "see" our first interstellar ambassador in the visible spectrum, but they can detect Voyager 1's signal in radio light.

The 36-year-old spacecraft's communications technology is lacking by today's standards. A smartphone has thousands of times more memory than Voyager 1 and the space probe's main transmitter radiates just 22 watts, about the same amount of power as a typical ham radio or a refrigerator light bulb, NASA said. But compared to many natural objects probed by radio telescopes, Voyager 1's signal is actually quite bright.

On Feb. 21, 2013, researchers tried to glimpse the spacecraft's radio signal using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a network of powerful radio telescopes spanning from Hawaii to St. Croix.

"They were able to see a blue speck," Suzanne Dodd, Voyager's project manager at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., said during a news conference Thursday. "And this image represents the Voyager radio signal as seen by the world's most sensitive ground-based telescope."

"It's just a speck in amongst a sea of darkness," Dodd added.

At the time of the observation, Voyager 1 was 11.5 billion miles (18.5 billion kilometers) away from Earth.

The image, which looks slightly oblong because of the array's configuration, is about 0.5 arcseconds on a side, according to NASA. One arcsecond β€” a unit of size for objects in the night sky β€” would describe the size of a penny as seen from 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) away. For comparison, the full moon is about 1,800 arcseconds across.

After launching more than three decades ago, Voyager 1 and its twin spacecraft Voyager 2 took a "grand tour" of the solar system, giving us the first up-close glimpse of Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune and several the moons of those outer planets.

Follow Megan Gannon on Twitter and Google+. Follow us @SPACEdotcom, Facebook or Google+. Originally published on SPACE.com.

http://www.space.com/22787-voyager-1-si ... photo.html

_________________
Quote:
Clowns to the left of me, Jokers to the right....


September 18th, 2013, 4:29 pm
Profile
Modmin Dude
User avatar

Joined: December 31st, 2004, 9:55 am
Posts: 12141
Post Re: Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble'
Voyager Captures Sounds of Interstellar Space:


_________________
Quote:
Clowns to the left of me, Jokers to the right....


September 18th, 2013, 4:31 pm
Profile
RIP Killer
User avatar

Joined: October 20th, 2004, 4:16 pm
Posts: 9891
Location: Where ever I'm at now
Post Re: Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier or our 'Solar Bubble'
Touchdown Jesus wrote:
Also, as was noted by wags, as of now nothing can move faster than the speed of light. So that's the upper bound of speed for anything (including communications). I'm not 100% certain of this, but I believe that in order for anything to surpass the speed of light, it will have to inviolate Einstein's theory of relativity. Thus far, nothing has ever done it, and from what I understand, nothing is even pending that looks like it could. The Large Hadron Collider scientists thought they had exceeded it in one experiment, but it turns out it was a math error.

So, until something faster than the speed of light comes along/is discovered, there will be delays covering huge distances. To put that into perspective, here's a few stats:

Mars is (on average) about 140 million miles away from Earth. The speed of light is 186,000 miles/second. That means any communications from the Earth to Mars would have a minimum delay of 12.5 minutes (140million/186,000 = 752 secs, which is 12.5 minutes).

Scale that up to the Voyagers: Voyager I (per the article) is 9 billion miles from the sun, which makes it around 8 billion, nine hundred seven million miles from earth. Calculating that distance, the communications delay (assuming transmissions are at the speed of light, which is probably not happening since there will always be some kind of interference/resistance) would be: 47,887 seconds = 798.12 minutes = 13 hours. Think about that! For every command issued, there is a 13 hour delay. That's nuts.

So there you go. My extremely amateur calculations & explanation of why there is a delay. I could be way wrong about this stuff, but that's my understanding of it. If anyone else knows better, please feel free to point out where I'm wrong.


Despite the fact that nothing has been discovered that is faster than light, scientists do have a name for such particles if they ever do discover them....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tachyon

_________________
Driver of the 'we need a coaching change' bandwagon. Climb aboard.


September 18th, 2013, 9:47 pm
Profile
Display posts from previous:  Sort by  
Reply to topic   [ 14 posts ] 

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 2 guests


You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum

Search for:
Jump to:  
Powered by phpBB © 2000, 2002, 2005, 2007 phpBB Group.
Designed by STSoftware.